Скачать (прямая ссылка):
But as Henry became more active in the community, he found less time for his newspaper. It ceased publication in 1840, and had an immediate successor, Der Deutsche Canadier, that ran from 1840 to 1865 under ownership of the Eby family . The Canadier and other German weeklies in southwestern Ontario provided news, commercial advertisement space, public notices, and literary pieces that reflected the interests of editors and subscribers.
- 157 -
Though Jakobsch finds that the literary selections in the Berliner Journal begin with the late Romanticists, some earlier literature is in evidence. In the second issue of the Journal, January 5, 1860 (p. 4, col. 3) appears a poem titled «Winter» by well-known author Matthias Claudius (1774—1815). This piece expresses with a simple metaphor, in seven well-crafted stanzas, the icy grasp of the figure of winter on the lives of the common people. Claudius is associated with a literary movement known as Empfmdamkeit (Sentimentality), which in the 1770s and 1780s emphasized a new, middle-class subjectivity, expressed with plain language and evocative of simple, pious feeling, and an irony that tempered the sharp rationalistic trends of the Enlightenment.
Claudius’ poetry appealed to many with its folk wisdom, encouraging observations about life related to Christian morality, and a genial, conversational tone. These aspects endeared his writings to the humbler, rural people he sought to champion against the rationalists and skeptics of the day. With its seasonal reference, Claudius’ poem «Winter», appearing in the second issue of the Journal, elaborates on the universal experience of people, subject to the domineering figure of winter.
Another selection that reflects an interest in 18 th century poetry appears well before the advent of the Berliner Journal. In 1835 the first German weekly in Canada, titled the Canada Museum, printed a long poem by Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart (1739—1791), a figure at the center of the Sturm and Drang (Storm and Stress), the movement of young, rebellious poets and dramatists of the 1770s and 1780s. Schubarts’s opposition to absolutism landed him in prison. His poem, titled Schubert’s (sic) Lied (Schubart’s Song) in the paper, is actually titled Kaplied (Song of the Cape), and its twelve stanzas express the feelings of German conscripts sold by Duke Karl Eugen of Wurttemberg to the Dutch East India Company for service at the Cape of Good Hope. The soldiers, Schubart emphasizes, endure a painful departure from girlfriends and parents, whom they may never see again. As they anticipate the sea voyage and their arrival in distant Africa, they affirm that, in spite of deprivations, they will display a courageous spirit as Germans. But when they drink the wine of the gods in Africa, tears will fall into their goblets, as they yearn for home and friends.
Schubart completed the poem in 1787, after he had been imprisoned for ten years by Duke Karl Eugen of Wurttemberg for revolutionary tendencies including his published criticisms of the duke.
- 158 -
He was freed at the request of another German prince, Frederick the Great of Prussia, after he wrote a poem lauding Frederick as the example of a heroic ruler.
The inclusion of Schubart’s poem in the Canada Museum by editor Henry William Peterson, suggests the intention to create a recognizable bridge between the theme of the conscripts’ yearning for home and family and the nineteenth century pioneers’ experiences of breaking ties with their native land to settle the frontier of Upper Canada. Most immigrants had felt the uncertainties of the journey, dislocation, and, though not sold into military service, toiled for many years to work off the cost of the passage. That the German press in Ontario would reach back a half-century to find a poem expressive of these sentiments suggests that these were kindred feelings of separation, tempered by the determination to survive in the new, as yet untamed environment.
Further references to this period, known in English as Storm and Stress, appear in the advertisements of German plays in theatres of the Kitchener-Waterloo area. The plays were presented by the local Turnvereine, gymnastic clubs that sponsored social and cultural events, and by Kindertheater and Knabentheater that featured childrens’ programs. The announcement of a work by the well-known German playwright August von Kotzebue (1761—1819), titled Der Wirrwarr (Chaos, or Confusion), in the Berliner Journal on February 16, 1860 (No . 8, p. 3, col. 4), shows an error in the attribution of authorship. This play was actually by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger (1752— 1831), as the cast of characters indicates. The subtitle of the Klinger play, Sturm and Drang, gave the German literary movement its name. It is a love story modeled after Romeo and Juliet with the American Revolution as its background. Feverish action and unrestrained passion are expressed with explosive language. The play breaks decisively with neoclassical rules for the stage and exemplifies the literary freedom of the Geniezeit (genius era) launched by Goethe and his young contemporaries in the 1770s.